Cathedral of Segovia. Photo by James R. Kaspar. Enlarge Image

 

syllabus 2012-13

History of Spain—Spring 2013

History of Spain studies the Spanish story from the earliest days of the Iberian peninsula to 1600.  During our thirty weeks we will study history, read fiction and poetry, discuss art and artists, and try to connect all these fields to one narrative explaining the formation of modern Spain.  Class begins the week of April 1 and ends the week of Thursday May 31, 2012.

Week 21:  Castile,  Tues. April 2, 2013

PART ONE: LECTURE

House of Trastámara.  John II ( 1405 – 1454) was King of Castile from 1406 to 1454. He was the son of Henry III of Castile and his wife Catherine of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster by Constance of Castile, daughter of King Peter of Castile.  Juan looked like his English grandfather, blond, blue eyed, tall and handsome, but it was only in appearance that there was any resemblance.  John of Gaunt was decisive and one of the most important figures of the whole of the fourteenth century.  His Castilian grandson was one of the most ineffectual rulers ever, anywhere.  And worse, he sat on the throne of Castile for almost half a century.  So the story of central Spain, that is Castile, begins the fifteenth century with a disastrous fifty year period of drift and civil chaos. 

REQUIRED READING

Mark Williams
The Story of Spain: The Dramatic History of Europe's Most Fascinating Country
Golden Era Books; 2nd edition (August 1, 2009)
ISBN 0970696930

Product Description:
The book is a popular history of Spain and the Spanish Empire from prehistoric times to the present day. It provides description and analysis of political, social, economic and cultural events over the centuries, which together shaped the history of this distinctive country. The book offers 60 illustrations and maps, including 16 pages of color photographs, as well as lists of historic places to visit at the end of each chapter. There is a dynastic chart, suggested readings, and index.

Review:
". . . the dramatic historical pageant of Spain . . . engages the reader from first page to last." -- Midwest Book Review, January 2000

". . . written in a style that clearly allows the reader to grasp the intricacies of Spainís historical elements." -- Spain 21 Magazine, Spring 2001

"A vivid account of the country's origins and development as a nation..." -- David Baird, Lookout Magazine

"By far the best introduction for students in English to Spain's history and culture..." -- Paul Smith, Professor Emeritus, Department of Spanish, U.C.L.A.

"For a readable and thorough but not over-long account of Spanish history, The Story of Spain is hard to beat." -- Lonely Planet guide to Spain, 2002 edition

"The title of this work prepares us for what it is: a history of Spain..." --Ruth Bennett, CUNY, Hispania Magazine


PART TWO: A Visit to CASTILE

Castile and the city of LEON

Week 22:  Aragon,  Tues. April 9, 2013

PART ONE: LECTURE

One of the most distinguished leaders of Aragon in the early 15th century was King Alfonso. Alfonso the Magnanimous ( 1396– 1458) was the King of Aragon (as Alfonso V), Valencia (as Alfonso III), Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica (as Alfonso II), and Sicily and Count of Barcelona (as Alfonso IV) from 1416 and King of Naples (as Alfonso I) from 1442 until his death. He was one of the most prominent figures of the early Renaissance and a knight of the Order of the Dragon.  Born at Medina del Campo, he was the son of Ferdinand I of Aragon (known as Ferdinand of Antequera) and Eleanor of Alburquerque. He represented the old line of the counts of Barcelona only through women, and was on his father's side descended from the House of Trastamara, the reigning House of Castile. By hereditary right he was king of Sicily and disputed the island of Sardinia with Genoa. Alfonso was also in possession of much of Corsica by the 1420s.  Alfonso represents the gradual merging of the reigning house of Castile with the reigning house of Aragon.  He is the grandfather of King Ferdinand II of Aragon.  Alfonso was succeeded by John II of Aragon.  John II the Faithless, also known as the Great (1398 – 1479 was the King of Aragon from 1458 until 1479, and jure uxoris King of Navarre from 1425 until his death. He was the son of Ferdinand I and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque. John is regarded as one of the most memorable and most unscrupulous kings of the 15th century.  John was born at Medina del Campo. In his youth he was one of the infantes (princes) of Aragon who took part in the dissensions of Castile during the minority and reign of John II of Castile. Till middle life he was also lieutenant-general in Aragon for his brother and predecessor Alfonso V, whose reign was mainly spent in Italy. In his old age he was engaged in incessant conflicts with his Aragonese and Catalan subjects, with Louis XI of France, and in preparing the way for the marriage of his son Ferdinand with Isabella I of Castile which brought about the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, that was to create the Kingdom of Spain.

REQUIRED READING: Chapter 5, "Birth of the Spanish World"

Mark Williams
The Story of Spain: The Dramatic History of Europe's Most Fascinating Country
Golden Era Books; 2nd edition (August 1, 2009)
ISBN 0970696930

Product Description:
The book is a popular history of Spain and the Spanish Empire from prehistoric times to the present day. It provides description and analysis of political, social, economic and cultural events over the centuries, which together shaped the history of this distinctive country. The book offers 60 illustrations and maps, including 16 pages of color photographs, as well as lists of historic places to visit at the end of each chapter. There is a dynastic chart, suggested readings, and index.

PART TWO A Visit to Aragon:


Pictures of Aragon: The city of Zaragossa


Week 23:  Isabella of Castile,  Tues. April 16, 2013

PART ONE: LECTURE

Wikipedia:  Isabella I (22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castile and León. She and her husband Ferdinand II of Aragon brought stability to both kingdoms that became the basis for the unification of Spain. Later the two laid the foundations for the political unification of Spain under their grandson, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. After a struggle to claim her right to the throne, she reorganized the governmental system, brought the crime rate to the lowest it had been in years, and pulled the kingdom out of the enormous debt her brother had left behind. Her reforms and those she made with her husband had an influence that extended well beyond the borders of their united kingdoms. Isabella and Ferdinand are known for completing the Reconquista, ordering conversion or exile of their Muslim and Jewish subjects and financing Christopher Columbus' 1492 voyage that led to the opening of the "New World".  Isabella was born in Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Ávila to John II of Castile and Isabella of Portugal on April 22, 1451.  She was the granddaughter of Henry III of Castile and Catherine of Lancaster. At the time of her birth, her older half brother Enrique (Henry) was in line for the throne before her. Enrique, referred to as the English version of his name Henry, was twenty-six years old at that time and married, but he was childless. Her younger brother Alfonso was born two years later on 17 November 1453 and displaced her in the line of succession.  When her father, John II of Castile, died in 1454, Henry became King Henry IV. Isabella and Alfonso were left in Henry's care.  Her brother Alfonso, mother, and she then moved to Arévalo.  These were times of turmoil for Isabella. Isabella lived with her brother and her mother in a castle in poor conditions where they also suffered from shortage of money. Although her father arranged in his will for his children to be financially well taken care of, her half-brother Henry did not comply with their father's wishes, either from a desire to keep his half-siblings restricted or ineptitude.  Even though the living conditions were lackluster, under the careful eye of her mother, Isabella was instructed in lessons of practical piety and in the deep reverence for religion.

REQUIRED READING: Chapter 5, "Birth of the Spanish World"

Mark Williams
The Story of Spain: The Dramatic History of Europe's Most Fascinating Country
Golden Era Books; 2nd edition (August 1, 2009)
ISBN 0970696930

Product Description:
The book is a popular history of Spain and the Spanish Empire from prehistoric times to the present day. It provides description and analysis of political, social, economic and cultural events over the centuries, which together shaped the history of this distinctive country. The book offers 60 illustrations and maps, including 16 pages of color photographs, as well as lists of historic places to visit at the end of each chapter. There is a dynastic chart, suggested readings, and index.

RECOMMENDED READING: 

This is the best biography of Isabella in English.

Nancy Stuart Rubin
Isabella of Castile: The First Renaissance Queen
Asja Press paperback, 2004
ISBN 0595320767

Editorial Reviews
From Publishers Weekly:  Isabella (1441-1504) was a master strategist, seizing the crown of Castile and, with husband Ferdinand of Aragon, ruling both her kingdom and his and winning a virtually nonstop succession of wars to preserve their strongholds. Freelance journalist Rubin presents the queen also as loving wife and mother, promoter of the arts and sponsor of Columbus, views emphasized to soften the dominant persona: Isabella la Catolica. Her goal to make Spain exclusively and permanently Catholic drove the queen to supporting the tortures of the Inquisition, burning dissenters at the stake and evicting Jews from the country. Packed with information, the book holds the reader's interest, despite pedestrian prose and a clear bias in Isabella's favor. Copyright 1991 Reed Business Information, Inc.

From Library Journal: The flow of books connected with the quincentenary of Columbus's voyage to the Americas continues. General readers interested in the remarkable woman who pressed the unification of the several kingdoms constituting medieval Spain; pacified a rebellious nobility; made Catholicism a national unifying force by using the Inquisition against Muslims and Jews; supported the new learning of the Renaissance; produced five children around whom the history of 16th-century Europe revolved; and, almost by accident, financed the Genoese sailor who "discovered" America believing it was India will find this an enjoyable study. Rubin, however, has a very sketchy knowledge of late medieval-early modern European history, nor is she familiar with the rich recent literature on Muslim Spain, the reconquista , and the direction of current scholarship. The book also suffers from clumsy organization, with 62 short chapters, too many romantic conjectures, contradictions, and a prolix style. The serious student and scholar must look to scholarly monographs. Previewed in "Rediscovering Columbus," LJ 8/91, p. 120-122. - Bennett D. Hill, Georgetown Univ., Washington, D.C. Copyright 1991 Reed Business Information, Inc.


PART TWO: Segovia

Images of Queen Isabella's favorite city; the city that launched her reign.

 

Week 24:  Ferdinand and Isabella,  Tues. April 23, 2013

PART ONE: LECTURE

1. Uniting the Nation; the Conquest of Granada, 1492.

2. Uniting the Nation: the Explulsion of the Jews, 1492.

RECOMMENDED READING

J. Edwards
Ferdinand and Isabella, Proflies in Power
Longman, 2004
ISBN 0582218160

The powerful personalities of Ferdinand and Isabella had a major impact on the societies and states of early Europe and America. They unified Spain under one government and established the new Inquisition in 1478; they affirmed the country's Catholic Christian identity by forcing Muslims and Jews to convert to Christianity and they sent Christopher Columbus to discover a New World. Their influence has passed down centuries, providing political and cultural role models during the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco. Powerful figures in history have generally achieved dominance as individuals, and have largely been male. This book is striking in being about a couple, not a single, dominant ruler. On the 500th anniversary of the death of Isabella, John Edwards provides a gripping and topical account of the dynamics of their power relationship and the religious controversies of their reign. This is essential reading for those concerned with power, politics and religion and with interfaith relations in the premodern world.   John Edwards is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, Fellow of the George Bell Institute, and Correspondent of the Spanish Royal Academy of History. Now a Research Fellow in Spanish at the University of Oxford, he was formerly Senior Lecturer in Medieval History and Reader in Spanish History at the University of Birmingham. He has written extensively on Spanish History, including The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs, 1474 - 1520 (2000).

Week 25:  The Children of Ferdinand & Isabella, Tues. April 30,

PART ONE: LECTURE

1. Isabella, Queen of Portugal, 1470-1498,
2. Juan, Prince of Asturias, 1478-1497
2. Juana, Queen of Castile, 1479-1555
3. Maria, Queen of Portugal, 1482-1517
4. Catherine, Queen of England, 1485-1536

RECOMMENDED READING

J. Edwards
Ferdinand and Isabella, Proflies in Power
Longman, 2004
ISBN 0582218160

The powerful personalities of Ferdinand and Isabella had a major impact on the societies and states of early Europe and America. They unified Spain under one government and established the new Inquisition in 1478; they affirmed the country's Catholic Christian identity by forcing Muslims and Jews to convert to Christianity and they sent Christopher Columbus to discover a New World. Their influence has passed down centuries, providing political and cultural role models during the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco. Powerful figures in history have generally achieved dominance as individuals, and have largely been male. This book is striking in being about a couple, not a single, dominant ruler. On the 500th anniversary of the death of Isabella, John Edwards provides a gripping and topical account of the dynamics of their power relationship and the religious controversies of their reign. This is essential reading for those concerned with power, politics and religion and with interfaith relations in the premodern world.   John Edwards is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, Fellow of the George Bell Institute, and Correspondent of the Spanish Royal Academy of History. Now a Research Fellow in Spanish at the University of Oxford, he was formerly Senior Lecturer in Medieval History and Reader in Spanish History at the University of Birmingham. He has written extensively on Spanish History, including The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs, 1474 - 1520 (2000).

Week 26:  Maps. and Exploration, Tues. May 7, 2013

PART ONE: LECTURE

In the late fifteenth century Europe turned its attention outside of the Mediterranean to the vast oceans that had been mostly ignored for the two thousand years since the great days of Golden Age Greece.  In general navigators did not like to leave the Mediterranean.  If you were sailing within the Mediterranean you could sail west along the north shore and east along the south shore and never be far out of the sight of land.  So for five or six millennia most European and Middle Eastern shipping stayed inside the Mediterranean sea.  For five hundreds years it was known as the "Roman Lake."  Then in the fifteenth century, a series of intellectual and political events led two European states, Portugal and Spain, to turn their attention west.  Both had useful Atlantic ports so either one could lead the new exploration.  Portugal was first.  The king and the court in Portugal patronized the great explorers and so during the fifteenth century Portugal became the center of the most advanced oceanographic exploration of the Atlantic that had ever been tried by Europeans.  But Spain soon joined the project.  And many explorers like Christopher Columbus moved back and forth from the court of Portugal to the court of Spain seeking whatever support was available for his projects.  Tonight we want to talk about the intellectual preparation that was necessary before Columbus could get into his three little ships in the fall of 1492.

Here is a very nice time line from WIKIPEDEA:

Early exploration
4500 BC Around this time, coastal cultures like those in Greece and China began diving into the sea as a source of food gathering, commerce, and possibly even warfare.
4000 BC Egyptians developed sailing vessels, which were probably used only in the eastern Mediterranean near the mouth of the Nile River.
4000 BC - 1000 AD Polynesian colonization of South Pacific Islands.
1800 BC Basic measuring of the depths is done in Egypt.
600 BC Phoenicians developed sea routes around the entire Mediterranean and into the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. Going around Africa they reached England by sailing along the western European coast. Although they understood celestial navigation, they probably stayed within sight of land whenever possible.
500-200 BC Greeks developed trade routes in the Mediterranean using the length of the day (corrected for the time of the year) to estimate latitude.
450 BC Herodotus publishes a map of the Mediterranean region.
325 BC Pytheas, a Greek astronomer and geographer, sailed north out of the Mediterranean, reaching England and possibly even Iceland and Norway. He also developed the use of sightings on the North Star to determine latitude.
200 BC Eratosthenes determines fairly accurately the circumference of the Earth using angles of shadows in Syene and Alexandria.
90-170 AD Ptolemy produces a map of the Roman world, including lines of latitude and longitude, the continents of Asia, Europe, and Africa and the surrounding oceans.
900-1430 AD Vikings explore and colonize Iceland, Greenland, Newfoundland.
1405-1433 Chinese send seven voyages to extend Chinese influence and impress their neighbor states. These expensive voyages are ended after a short time. See Zheng He (1371–1433).


RECOMMENDED BOOKS

My first choice for the best book to serve as an introduction to the whole subject of exploration is Norman Thrower, Maps and Civilization.  But if you also want to treat yourself to a beautiful book with great photos of important maps from the history of the world then you should also get National Geographic's.

Norman J. W. Thrower
Maps and Civilization, Cartography in Culture and Society
University Of Chicago Press; 3 edition (October 15, 2008)
ISBN 0226799743

Review:
"A marvelous compendium of map lore. Anyone truly interested in the development of cartography will want to have his or her own copy to annotate, underline, and index for handy referencing." - L. M. Sebert, Geomatica "The premier one-volume history of cartography.... Maps and Civilization should be a close companion for anyone interested in maps: where they came from, where they are now, and where to go for more detail." - John P. Snyder, Mercator's World"
About the Author Norman J. W. Thrower is professor emeritus of geography at the University of California, Los Angeles. His other books include Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: A Longer View of Newton and Halley, Sir Francis Drake and the Famous Voyage, 1577–1580, and Original Survey and Land Subdivision.

Ralph E. Ehrenberg
Mapping the World: An Illustrated History of Cartography [Hardcover]
National Geographic, 2005
ISBN 0792265254

Amazon price: used copies from 19.45 and up....

Book Description Publication Date: October 11, 2005 Mapping the World is a one-of-a-kind collection of cartographic treasures that spans thousands of years and many cultures, from an ancient Babylonian map of the world etched on clay to the latest high-tech maps of the earth, seas, and the skies above. With more than one hundred maps and other illustrations and an introduction and running commentary by Ralph E. Ehrenberg, this book tells a fascinating story of geographic discovery, scientific invention, and the art and technique of mapmaking. Mapping the World is organized chronologically with a brief introduction that places the maps in their historical context. Special "portfolios" within each section feature key cartographic innovators and maps of exceptional artistic quality or significance, such as the 1507 Waldseemüller Map, the first to use the name America. Unusual and surprising maps are also presented, including a set of playing cards that contained a secret escape map for American prisoners in Germany during World War II. With its broad historical and cultural range, unmatched variety of maps from the finest map collections in the world, more than one hundred illustrations, and a fresh and authoritative perspective on the history of cartography, Mapping the World will delight everyone with an interest in maps and mapmaking like no other book on the subject.

PART TWO: PICTURES

Pictures of maps, globes.


Week 27: Christopher Columbus,  Tues. May 14, 2013

PART ONE: LECTURE

Italian: Cristoforo Colombo, Catalan: Cristòfor Colom, Spanish: Cristóbal Colón, Portuguese: Cristóvão Colombo, Latin: Christophorus Columbus, Genoese: Christoffa Corombo

Wikipedia: Christopher Columbus (unknown; before 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in what is today northwestern Italy.  Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements in the island of Hispaniola, initiated the process of Spanish colonization, which foreshadowed the general European colonization of the "New World". In the context of emerging western imperialism and economic competition between European kingdoms seeking wealth through the establishment of trade routes and colonies, Columbus' far-fetched proposal to reach the East Indies by sailing westward received the support of the Spanish crown, which saw in it a promise, however remote, of gaining the upper hand over rival powers in the contest for the lucrative spice trade with Asia. During his first voyage in 1492, instead of reaching Japan as he had intended, Columbus landed in the Bahamas archipelago, at a locale he named San Salvador. Over the course of three more voyages, Columbus visited the Greater and Lesser Antilles, as well as the Caribbean coast of Colombia, Venezuela and Central America, claiming them for the Spanish Empire. Though Columbus was not the first European explorer to reach the Americas (having been preceded by the Norse expedition led by Leif Ericson) , Columbus' voyages led to the first lasting European contact with America, inaugurating a period of European exploration and colonization of foreign lands that lasted for several centuries. They had, therefore, an enormous impact in the historical development of the modern Western world. Columbus himself saw his accomplishments primarily in the light of the spreading of the Christian religion.[2] Never admitting that he had reached a continent previously unknown to Europeans, rather than the East Indies he had set out for, Columbus called the inhabitants of the lands he visited indios (Spanish for "Indians").  Columbus' strained relationship with the Spanish crown and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and dismissal as governor of the settlements in Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the benefits which Columbus and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown.

REQUIRED READING: Read the "Introduction" and the First Voyage

Christopher Columbus
The Four Voyages: Being His Own Log-Book, Letters and Dispatches with Connecting Narratives
Penguin Classic
ISBN 0140442170



PART TWO: DVD

We have a great DVD tonight on Columbus. A recreation of the Columbian voyage.

 

Week 28:  King Charles I of Spain,  Tues. May 21, 2013

PART ONE: LECTURE

Wikipedia: Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (Spanish: Carlos I de España y V de Alemania, German: Karl V., Italian: Carlo V, Danish: Karel V, French: Charles Quint, Turkish: Sarlken;)
born 24 February 1500, died 21 September 1558, was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and, as Charles I, of the Spanish Empire from 1516 until his voluntary retirement and abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I and his son Philip II in 1556. As the heir of three of Europe's leading dynasties—the House of Habsburg of the Habsburg Monarchy; the House of Valois-Burgundy of the Burgundian Netherlands; and the House of Trastámara of the Crowns of Castile and Aragon—he ruled over extensive domains in Central, Western, and Southern Europe; and the Spanish colonies in North, Central, and South America, the Caribbean, and Asia. Charles was the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna the Mad. When Philip died in 1506, Charles became ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands, and his mother's co-ruler in Spain upon the death of his maternal grandfather, Ferdinand the Catholic, in 1516. As Charles was the first person to rule Castile-León and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, he became the first King of Spain (Charles co-reigned with his mother Joanna, which was however a technicality given her mental instability). In 1519, Charles succeeded his paternal grandfather Maximilian as Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria. From that point forward, Charles's realm, which has been described as "the empire on which the sun never sets", spanned nearly four million square kilometers across Europe, the Far East, and the Americas. Much of Charles' reign was devoted to the Italian Wars against the French king, Francis I, and his heir, king Henry II, which although enormously expensive, were militarily successful due to the undefeated Spanish tercio and the efforts of his prime ministers Mercurino Gattinara and Francisco de los Cobos y Molina. Charles' forces re-captured both Milan and Franche-Comté from France after the decisive Habsburg victory at the Battle of Pavia in 1525, which pushed Francis to form the Franco-Ottoman alliance. Charles' rival Suleiman the Magnificent conquered Hungary in 1526 after defeating the Christians at the Battle of Mohács. However, the Ottoman advance was halted after they failed to capture Vienna in 1529. Aside from this, Charles is best known for his role in opposing the Protestant Reformation. In addition to the German Peasants' War against the Empire, several German princes abandoned the Catholic Church and formed the Schmalkaldic League in order to challenge Charles' authority with military force. Unwilling to allow the same religious wars to come to his other domains, Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. The Society of Jesus was established by St. Ignacio de Loyola during Charles' reign in order to peacefully and intellectually combat Protestantism, and continental Spain was spared from religious conflict largely by Charles' nonviolent measures.  In Germany, although the Protestants were personally defeated by Charles at the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547, he legalized Lutheranism within the Holy Roman Empire with the Peace of Augsburg. Charles also maintained his alliance with Henry VIII of England, despite the latter splitting the Church of England from Rome and violently persecuting Catholics. In the New World, Charles oversaw the Spanish colonization of the Americas, including the conquest of both the Aztec Empire and the Inca Empire. The rapid Christianization of New Spain was attributed to the miracle of Our Lady of Guadalupe. Uncomfortable with how his viceroys were governing the Americas vis-à-vis the Native Americans, Charles consulted figures such as Francisco de Vitoria and Bartolomé de las Casas on the morality of colonization which las Casas vehemently opposed with his Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. Charles V also provided five ships to Ferdinand Magellan and his navigator Juan Sebastián Elcano, after the Portuguese captain was repeatedly turned down by Manuel I of Portugal. The commercial success of Magellan's voyage (the first circumnavigation of the Earth) temporarily enriched Charles by the sale of its cargo of cloves and laid the foundation for the Pacific oceanic empire of Spain, and along with Ruy López de Villalobos, began Spanish colonization of the Philippines. Though always at war, Charles was essentially a lover of peace, and all his wars were virtually defensive. "Not greedy of territory", wrote Marcantonio Contarini in 1536, "but most greedy of peace and quiet." Charles retired in 1556. The Habsburg Monarchy passed to Charles' younger brother Ferdinand, whereas the Spanish Empire was inherited by his son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century.


Charles V of Sapin

RECOMMENDED READING

The best one-volume biography of Charles in English and in print is William Maltby.

William Maltby
The Reign of Charles V (European History in Perspective) [Paperback]
Palgrave Macmillan (November 4, 2004)
ISBN 0333677684

The Reign of Charles V is an important new study of one of the most important rulers in world history. As the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain during the mid-1500s, Charles V ruled the first truly global empire and was the greatest of all the Habsburg Emperors. He was responsible for, among other things, the conquests of Mexico and Peru and the consequent European influence on Latin America, the waning of the Renaissance, the religious transformation of Europe by the Protestant and Catholic Reformations, and the establishment of a Habsburg empire in Eastern Europe.William Maltby's engaging new study not only looks at the emperor as a person, but also examines such important critical issues as his policies and their consequences. Concise and readable, The Reign of Charles V provides an indispensable introduction to an era that changed the world. William Maltby is Professor of History Emeritus at the University of Missouri, St. Louis. He has served as Executive Director of the Center for Reformation Research and has written extensively on various aspects of early modern history.

PART TWO: Pictures

The story of Charles' parents and grandparents.



Week 29:  King Philip II of Spain, Tues. May 28, 2013

PART ONE: LECTURE

Wikipedia: Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II; Portuguese: Filipe I ; born 21 May 1527, died 13 September 1598, was King of Spain, Portugal, Naples, and Sicily. During his marriage to Mary I, he was also King of England and Ireland. He was lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories such as duke or count. Also known as Philip the Prudent, he ruled one of the world's largest empires which included territories in every continent then known to Europeans. Philip was born in Valladolid, the son of Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, and his consort, Isabella of Portugal. During his reign, Spain was the foremost Western European power. Under his rule, Spain reached the height of its influence and power, directing explorations all around the world and settling the colonization of territories in all the known continents. He was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as "slight of stature and round-faced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, and pink skin, but his overall appearance is very attractive." The Ambassador went on to say "He dresses very tastefully, and everything that he does is courteous and gracious."


Phillip II of Spain

RECOMMENDED READING:


Philip has not had gentle treatment from the historians. Most accounts portray him as extremely unappealing and as a religious fanatic. Actually, he was a very attractive man with a spectacular education, with devoted parents, and with all the advantages coming to a young prince of his day. Henry Kamen has crafted a wonderful new biography of Philip for our time. I recommend it to you very highly.

Henry Kamen
Philip of Spain
Yale University Press with a beautiful paperback edition
ISBN 0300078005

Editorial Reviews

From Library Journal: The depth of Kamen's research on his subject, who ruled Spain from 1527 to 1598, could overwhelm some readers, as his previous works have done (e.g., The Phoenix and the Flame, Yale Univ., 1993). In this first in-depth biography of Philip II, Kamen's understanding of and acquaintance with the sources is masterly. The author often disagrees with much of the classic beliefs about Philip's personality; for example, his supposed solemnity and predilection for black (Kamen notes that the king was rarely out of mourning). However, regarding Philip's reputed cruelty, Kamen says he was hard but "restrained the severity of his officials on numberless occasions," yet he fails to enumerate these occasions. While Philip dominated Spanish politics and culture for more than half a century, Kamen devotes only a few tantalizing pages to the effects of that reign on subsequent events. The audience deserves more of Kamen's insights toward this end. Still, this is a work of marvelous scholarship; highly recommended.?Clay Williams, Ferris State Univ., Big Rapids, Mich. Copyright 1997 Reed Business Information, Inc.

From Booklist: Philip II of Spain has received an almost uniformly bad press; scholars, particularly English and American, generally portray him as a narrow-minded, religious fanatic who reacted with predictable brutality to any stirrings of liberal religious or political thought. Kamen, currently a professor for the Council of Scientific Research in Barcelona, strives mightily to present a more balanced portrait. He scores points in indicating that the supposedly insular Philip traveled widely, mixed socially with Protestants in the Netherlands, and seemed willing to grant them a measure of religious (but not political) toleration. Instead of the absolute monarch often described in diatribes by Anglophiles, Kamen's Philip emerges as a ruler of a fragmented Spain who strived continually to cope with centrifugal forces. Kamen's prose is lucid, succinct, and thorough, without getting bogged down in details that would appeal strictly to specialists. In humanizing a man too often viewed as a cardboard tyrant, Kamen has made a valuable contribution to European historiography. Jay Freeman

PART TWO: PICTURES

Paintings of Philip, his family and friends.


Week 30:  Santa Teresa of Avila,  Tues. June 4, 2013

LAST CLASS OF OUR YEAR ON SPAIN: Boo Hoo

Wikipedia:
Saint Teresa of Ávila, also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, baptized as Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada, (March 28, 1515 – October 4, 1582) was a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun, and writer of the Counter Reformation, and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer. She was a reformer of the Carmelite Order and is considered to be, along with John of the Cross, a founder of the Discalced Carmelites. In 1622, forty years after her death, she was canonized by Pope Gregory XV, and in 1970 named a Doctor of the Church by Pope Paul VI. Her books, which include her autobiography, The Life of Teresa of Jesus, and her seminal work, El Castillo Interior (The Interior Castle), are an integral part of the Spanish Renaissance literature as well as Christian mysticism and Christian meditation practices as she entails in her other important work Camino de Perfección (The Way of Perfection)

REQUIRED READING:

St Teresa de Avila
The Life of Saint Teresa of Avila by Herself
Penguin Classic
ISBN 0140440739

 

PART TWO: PICTURES

A journey to Avila.